CONTACT THE WORLD FROM AIN DZARIT
THE EDITOR'S WORD
|Mr Belfedhal Tahar at the class room|
this blog is intended for all ,who want to improve his/her level at english.
At the end, we hope a great success to my blog. specially for my friends and my brothers in ain dzarit.
English Language Learner Teaching Strategies That Work
THE OLDEST UNIVERSITIES IN THE WORLD
The list of the oldest universities in the world varies, depending on how one defines a university. If a university is considered to be a degree granting institution, all of the world's oldest universities are located in Europe, where the practice of granting certification was widespread by the 1100s. However, many institutions of advanced learning in Asia and Africa are far older than European universities, and rightly belong on a list of the world's oldest universities when one thinks of them as institutions of learning. Alas, many ancient centers of learning no longer exist. The University of Nalanda, for example, a seat of Buddhist learning in India, was founded in the fifth century BCE, but closed in the 1100s. For the purpose of this list, we are only counting continuously operating institutions of learning, some of which offered degrees later than others. In all instances, the exact date of foundation is sometimes difficult to establish, since many universities organized themselves slowly. By continent, the oldest universities are headed up by the University of Nanjing, in China, founded around 258 BCE. It was only formally termed a “university” in 1888, but it has offered education to Chinese without the issuance of formal degrees for centuries. Next, representing Africa, is the University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco, founded in 859, followed by the University of Bologna in Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088 by students who recruited instructors. In South America, the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, was founded in 1536, and Harvard University, in North America, was founded in 1636. Australia followed in 1850 with the University Sydney, and Antarctica does not host a university. Some universities vie for spaces on the list of the oldest universities in the world. Due to changes in university names and charters, some schools have undergone a number of different incarnations which make them difficult to track. Harvard, for example, competes with several other universities and colleges in the United States for the honor of being called the “first” university. If one looks for the oldest universities in the world with the criterion that they also granted degrees throughout their history, the oldest universities in the world are all European, starting with the University of Bologna. The next four oldest universities are: University of Paris (1150), University of Oxford (c. 1167), University of Modena (1175), and the University of Cambridge (1209). The practice of offering degrees in recognition for advanced study spread from Europe to other nations, and also cemented the connection between universities and degrees which persists to this day.
HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
Did you know that the first computers were women? The term computer was originally a job title, and these jobs were typically filled by women with math degrees. The mechanical (and later electrical) contrivance was given the name computer because it was intended to replace these workers. Did you know that the first computer programmer was also a woman? But the computer for which she wrote her programs was never finished. This was because the time frame was the 1800's and the computer was going to be as big as a house and powered by 6 steam engines. The history of the computer is truly stranger than fiction. Have a look at over 50 photos of the earliest successful and unsuccessful attempts at building an intelligent machine. You can download this illustrated history of computers using the hyperlink found at the bottom of this page. In the meantime, three of the most famous early computers are pictured below. Can you name them? The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify. Papyrus helped early man to record language and numbers. The abacus was one of the first counting machines.. Some of the earlier mechanical counting machines lacked the technology to make the design work. For instance, some had parts made of wood prior to metal manipulation and manufacturing. Imagine the wear on wooden gears. This history of computers site includes the names of early pioneers of math and computing and links to related sites about the History of Computers, for further study. This site would be a good Web adjunct to accompany any book on the History of Computers or Introduction to Computers. The "H" Section includes a link to the History of the Web Beginning at CERN which includes Bibliography and Related Links. Hitmill.com strives to always include related links for a broader educational experience. The material was originally divided into Part 1 Belfedhal Tahar